What are the difference between invoice and quote and which is better in that?

When it comes to making invoices for use, it seems that we are all more or less clear about what they are, how they are used and what for. But when we get a billing program and it gives us the option to create delivery notes, budgets and proforma invoices, the doubts begin.

In this article, we are going to try to shed a little light on what are the main differences between a pro forma invoice and a budget.

What is an invoice?

A proforma invoice is a document whose use is very widespread among freelancers and employers. This is usually used as a draft before issuing the final invoice. It is very common to use proforma invoices for international trade.

It is mandatory that the words “proforma invoice” appear on it. It is important to remember that the proforma invoice has no fiscal or accounting validity. This means that a proforma invoice is not a substitute for an invoice and therefore a service or advance cannot be charged using a proforma.

Does the proforma invoice have to bear VAT? Although as we have already said a proforma has no tax value, it is recommended to include VAT so that the client can see the real value of the goods or services.

The proforma invoice differs from the budget in some respects. Both documents can be used for a similar purpose; but generally, they have a number of key identifying elements.

Among its similarities we can highlight that both the proforma and the budget are documents that lack fiscal or tax validity, and therefore cannot be used as supporting documents for the Treasury.

Of course, both are supporting documents regarding the terms set in the agreement, such as the price, transportation costs, the operations that will be part of the final transaction, etc. In this way, they may be useful in the event of discrepancies once the initial conditions of the operation have been accepted.

What is a quote?

A quote is a document or offer (which can be open or closed) about the terms (such as payment terms) and the price of a good or service.

It is quite common that a budget is open to negotiation with the client. As a general rule, the professions in which the use of budgets is habitual do not offer closed prices but are adapted to the characteristics and situation of each individual client.

Like the proforma invoice, the budget has no fiscal or accounting value. This is why you can neither collect an advance on a budget nor charge a good or service.

In most cases, quote are made by individuals or companies that offer a service that does not have a fixed price, so it is vitally important to strike a balance between being competitive and not devaluing work. Only in this way, the budget will be moderate and taken into account by the client. To make a balanced budget, you have to take into account that costs are covered, that there is a profit margin, the market price, and possible promotions.

What is the difference between a proforma invoice and a quote?

Typically, a proforma invoice involves a more developed business relationship between the customer and the seller than a quote. The nature of the budget is more that of an offer that the client can accept or not, while the proforma invoice is more “closed”.

It is usual for the final invoice to coincide with the proforma, while compared to the budget, there may be a greater discrepancy in the terms or even in the final price.

In the price or tariff negotiation process, normally a budget is sent first and once the client gives the approval to said budget, a proforma can be sent to the client as a “draft”.

In turn, the use of proforma invoices is more common in international trade, often used to declare goods at customs. It is also common for some clients to request a pro forma invoice in order to request bank financing.

To conclude, it is important to understand that a budget or a pro forma cannot replace an ordinary invoice, since they do not have fiscal validity. Normally, the budget is associated with a more open business relationship and the proforma with a more developed and formal relationship.

Perhaps the most obvious difference between both documents is that the proforma will contain a formal image and an invoice format, with all the details of the transaction well broken down: supplier and issuer tax data, base price, VAT, etc.

The only difference with an ordinary invoice is that the proforma contains a different serial number and a special heading in the upper area of ​​the header, to indicate that it is not indeed a document with tax validity.

However, the budget does not have to contain an invoice aspect, and in many cases it can even be formalized in an email, without the need for a specific document.

For this reason, in certain sectors such as international trade in which transactions require special security between the two parties to the operation and, therefore, a more formal document is required to prove the conditions of the agreement, the pro forma invoice is usually the means preferred to set the details of the operation.

On the contrary, in work areas where less formality is required, the budget is usually a simpler way to detail the transaction.

Which is better

It can be said that none is better since each one serves a purpose and should be used in a certain situation. In conclusion, the main difference between the two is that the budget is a less formal document, which has no validity beyond the word of the person presenting it; and the proforma invoice, is a document that contains clearer, more advanced and relevant information about the operation that will be carried out between both parties, and that will have to be respected in the event that the agreement is carried out.

As you can see, it is easy to decide between a proforma invoice or a budget, depending on the information you want to give your client, and the degree of commitment you want to maintain with him.


Things which you need to know about Harvesting in the farm and its process

An agricultural farm is a sector of land dedicated primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic unit of food production. There are specialized units called arable fields, vegetable farms, fruit farms, and where the soil is used to produce natural fibers, biofuel, and other bulk goods. Among the names given to it are fields, ranches and plantations.

Agriculture developed independently in different parts of the world, as hunter-gatherer societies transitioned to food producers, rather than capturing their food. It is believed to have started about 12,000 years ago with the domestication of livestock in the Fertile Crescent in western Asia, soon followed by grain cultivation. Modern units specialize in crops that adapt to the soil and climate conditions of the region, the result of the harvest is marketed either on the market or for further processing.

When we finally started our own mixed vegetable operation in a 77-hectare field previously used for corn, there were no trees, much less a cold room. We do not think it would have a greater consequence.

After all, our purpose was to provide the freshest possible product to our CSA members. We woke up early enough to harvest everything we planned to distribute that same day.

What can be better than freshly picked vegetables, lettuce, tomatoes, and squash?

It wasn’t until our customers started complaining that our mezclum seemed to spoil in their coolers faster than the weekly California product; so we started to take a closer look at what we were doing.

We realized that our responsibility for high-quality vegetables does not end once our product leaves our farm. Many of our customers stored our product for several days (even weeks) after we thought they would be consumed.

We learned that how we handle produce before, during, and even minutes after harvest has a huge impact on its long-term quality. Deterioration happens for a number of reasons including temperature, water loss, physical damage, disease at the microorganism level and even the normal process of product maturation.

Now we take those factors into account from the very beginning. In most cases, it has made us improve our harvesting efficiency because we get the job done faster and the increased taste and shelf life of the product definitely makes the effort worthwhile.

Aside from generating a higher quality product that will last longer in our customers’ refrigerators, we can also harvest less frequently (which means that we can harvest more product with less work for our CSA distributions).

Before Harvest

Our post-harvest care begins a few days before we harvest with a factor that we have some control over: water!

We make sure the soil has enough moisture before we harvest green vegetables and lettuce. All too often this means irrigation before harvest – but not just before harvest, because we don’t want to work with wet leaves. We do the same with the carrot – irrigating enough to minimize the effort required to pull the product out of the ground without having to exert as much force, reducing the physical effort on the product and on our backs.

For other vegetables such as tomatoes and melons, we take the opposite approach and reduce or stop irrigating as the harvest approaches to concentrate flavors. This brings with it several restrictions with certain variations of melons in which the harvest is done less frequently, but this is not the case with tomatoes. We grow our tomatoes in high-end open tunnels so that we have perfect control over how much water they absorb, allowing us to coordinate the harvest to ensure the greatest amount of flavor.

It is a surprisingly persistent myth that tomatoes ripen better on the vine than on the vine. In fact, on hot days, tomatoes don’t ripen as well or evenly attached to the vine as they do apart. If you don’t believe me, do a blind test with your clients! What really matters with the taste is how much water you have given your tomatoes a day or two before harvest. We reduce our irrigation cycles 50 hours before harvest and completely eliminate irrigation 36 hours before harvest – restarting irrigation immediately after harvest. If you’ve tested the difference between tomatoes harvested right after a storm, against a few days of not receiving water, then you already know what a difference this can make.

Although we grow a wide variety of specialty tomatoes, we have found that we can impressively concentrate the taste of our hybrid tomatoes to the point that our customers do not prefer specialty tomatoes over hybrids when presented with the choice.

Giving a complete 180 ° turn to our previous arrogant claim of “freshly harvested” vegetables, we have found that scheduling harvests based on climate and humidity (water) leads to better long-term quality of our products.

For example, I prefer to harvest lettuce about three days before it is ready in case there is a possibility of rain on our distribution day. The same with coriander and other delicate products. Some varieties of broccoli are especially susceptible to fungal contamination caused by rainwater deposits, so they can be harvested before the product is ready in case of a possibility of rain, if adequate storage conditions are in place.

During Harvest

The most important thing to remember is that the quality of the product will not improve once it is detached from the plant. Small indentations in tomatoes – or areas contaminated with Swiss chard, get worse every day. We dispose of poor quality products in the field instead of having to sort it after harvest where it can make a complete basket look bad.

We pack baskets loosely rather than overflow, even if this means more movement to and from the field during harvest, and we minimize stowage of one basket over another during transport if we see that one basket can collapse inside another damaging the product. If we find damaged produce on the farm after harvest, we separate it immediately, BEFORE introducing it into the cold room.

I harvest the pumpkin with cotton-jersey gloves, but my wife Kate has a beautiful and soft woman’s hands so she does it without gloves. We have seen what perforations and scratches can do to a summer or winter squash – and we remind ourselves that we are not harvesting for the quality of 2 days prior to distribution, but for the next 10 days that our customers can store our product in their refrigerators.

Vegetables are never thrown in baskets, and baskets are never thrown on the ground. If we have helpers, they are trained in the importance of gentle touch when handling the product.

Because we harvest our tomatoes as soon as they show signs of being ready (at first glance) the product is more resistant to damage even if they are packed to a higher level in the baskets. Still, we prefer that our hybrid tomatoes are not stowed in baskets in more than 3 layers, and specialty tomatoes are packaged in a single layer with nothing placed on top of them. We harvest them to the same basket in which they will be stored to avoid damage caused by handling.

The vegetables that we will be cooling with the use of a hose, we ensure that our baskets have holes that allow water to be drained from the baskets.

Post-Harvest Temperature Control

The table at the end of this article shows the optimal storage temperatures for a selection of vegetables. Even if you can’t reach the perfect temperatures, if you get anything out of reading this article, I hope you are aware of how critical it is to bring the product as close as possible to ideal temperatures as early as possible once they are separated from the plant. .

To use strawberries as an example, the ideal storage temperature is 32 ° F (0 ° C). If you store them at 65 ° F (18.3 ° C) then you reduce their shelf life by 70%. That sounds pretty bad, but the worst part is leaving them at 77 ° F (25 ° C) only for the duration of the harvest. If it delays refrigeration for only 4 hours after harvest and reduces the life of the product by almost half. Wait 6 to 8 hours and it returns to a 70% reduction regardless if you refrigerate it at 32 ° F (0 ° C) immediately after that time.

Also remember that the effects of temperature are additive. The greatest damage occurs immediately after harvest, as the crop is often even hotter than 77 ° F (25 ° C) because it has been receiving sunlight. But even after it has been refrigerated, they will heat up again at the farm counter, and then in their customers’ cars. All those sub-optimal conditions times accumulate to destroy the quality of your products, so it is very important that you control what you can control – especially during the first 30-60 minutes immediately after harvest!

In the case of especially sensitive crops such as strawberries, it is also a matter of marketing. We used to desperately search for clients for our strawberries every spring before they went bad. It was frustrating enough that we considered dumping the entire harvest. Now, we regularly sell strawberries 3 to 4 days after harvest that look much better than the 1-day-harvest strawberries we previously sold.

Some crops are cooled through the use of water, which means they are sprayed with ice cold well water. If you have helpers, it is really important to alert us about the serious damage caused to a fruit by directing a jet of water pressure towards it. Strong crops like kale, cabbages, turnips, carrots, beets can withstand a jet of water; But we don’t do that for green vegetables, lettuce, basil, coriander, or other crops that could retain water, causing other types of spoilage problems.


Do you know how to make frozen paint with colors and how to use it?

This weekend we have done an activity with frozen paint! It is very fashionable, we did it at school, in all the blogs they teach different activities with frozen paint, so we were not going to be less.

I do not dilute the paint with water, directly, but at school they did mix it a little so that it was not so thick. To an ice bucket, a stick or anything with which you can then manipulate it … and voila !!

Painting, an activity highly required by children and that in this post becomes an experience. I propose a sensory activity that you can take advantage of by working more areas. An original way to develop creativity, design a poster to decorate and play individually and in groups. Be sure to see the beautiful and colorful results in the post.

The idea is very simple and the paint can be made from different materials that we have at home at the time.

It consists of filling an ice cube tray or pole molds with finger paint, adding a stick to hold them and then freezing it. It is also useful if we do not have finger paint, any other type of paint suitable for children that we can dilute in water, or food coloring, that is, the latter comes out worse from the skin and the idea is that we do not have children in multicolour mode. weekend.

If we are lucky enough to be able to enjoy a great garden or outdoor area, but if we have to do it indoors we must take certain precautions since the resulting paint once thawed will be quite liquid.

Well, once we have frozen our paint we will take them apart and leave them in a container with more ice to help them withstand cold most of the time. And now we just have to take out some cards or sheets to let our little ones unfold their artistic streak.

You can also try to paint your body and thus, the fun of the painting itself will add the sensation of ice running through the skin, surely the little ones love it. Of course, although they are suitable for children, it is better to ensure that they are not confused with flavored poles.

What we can work during the activity

You can do this task for fun, an original way to entertain yourself. But if you want, you can take advantage of it:

  • Make dynamics to learn or revise the colors: if they play in a group that one of the children names the colors that each one has to use, that the colors that appear on a dice are used, paint with shades based on metaphors (paint with the color of the sun, paint with the color of the sky …)
  • Learn the concepts of cold, hot, humid and dry:  for example, we paint with the cube that, ah, it’s cold! Touch the paint on the paper that is wet, what part of the paper is dry? that we do not paint is warm …
  •  Experiment with colors: for example, what happens if we mix the colors yellow and red?
  • We paint and review the shapes
  • We respect turns: it can be done by everyone, or if you want to encourage your children to wait their turn, do it this way. You can use the wheel of turns or name who is playing.
  • Encourage expression and interaction: either verbally, by gestures or pointing, that each child names the partner he wants him to paint and the color to use.

There are countless different techniques and materials that we can vary when drawing, painting or modeling. It is important to have a surface protected by a washable tablecloth and use old clothes so that we do not worry about disaster and simply enjoy the moment together.

Here we will show you a new option to surprise your little ones. We are going to paint with frozen colors. This technique is ideal for those little ones who don’t like getting dirty. The result is so attractive that very young children may believe that the paints are palettes (poles) and put them in their mouths, so it is important to reserve this activity for children 3 years and older.

The projects inspired by the process art or art process have step by step instructions, there is no right way or wrong way to develop the project (only limits basic as pulling the materials to the soil or eat the paint), the art of each child is unique and original, the experience is relaxed and the children are the owners of the art and creation process.

To make the ice paint you need:
  • cardstock sheets (thick)
  • Water
  • colored temperas
  • an ice tray/bucket
  • ice cream sticks
  • a dish
  • Fill the tray with water half or 3/4 
  • In each space of the ice tray put a color:  mixing the water with the tempera (half tempera, half water for intense colors, but with 3/4 water 1/4 tempera it also works)
  • Leave the tray in the fridge for about 30 minutes (if your fridge is super fast check the tray after 20 minutes)
  • Put a stick in each color . After 30 minutes the water should be turning into ice which is going to make the stick stand without help. If you let too little time pass, the water will not have hardened a bit and the ice cream stick will not be able to stand, and if you allow too much time, the water will have completely turned into ice and it will be impossible to put the ice cream stick.
  • Put the tray back in the fridge until the ice cubes are ready (I recommend preparing the ice cubes the day before the day you are going to use them)
  • Take the ice cubes out of the fridge just before you use them and put them on a plastic plate. Children can choose colors and make their own artwork.

With this activity you will expose the children to a new material, they will practice the colors, and you will review the concept of “cold”. In addition this is a “friendly” activity for children with Sensory Processing Disorder since thanks to the stick children can avoid getting their hands dirty or touching the ice.


Useful Whatsapp tricks which you need to know while using it

Since its birth about six years ago, WhatsApp has grown to more than 1,000 million users and is one of our most common apps in many cases. From there it has also evolved with its particular rhythm adding more functions, but we do not always know how to use them or even that it exists, and here we have gathered 17 tricks for WhatsApp that bring together many of them.

There are functions that are more accessible and others that are not as intuitive or that we configure outside the app itself . Do you want to send messages from the voice assistant without touching the mobile? Know who has read your message in the group? We explain how to do these and other things on WhatsApp.

Whether you have an  iPhone or an Android, I am sure that one of the applications that you use the most in your day to day is WhatsApp. It is the most used instant messaging service in the world and the one with the largest number of users. Despite this, one of the main criticisms of  WhatsApp is that its application is very limited compared to other options.

But is this true? Is it really very limited? Compared to some competitors, perhaps, but the WhatsApp app hides many “secret” functions with which you can do much more than you think. 

Would you like to know some of these secret functions and other tricks of WhatsApp? Keep reading to know or tricks to get more out of the WhatsApp app on iPhone and Android.

Different Tricks to use WhatsApp:

1. Choose what to show

Like other messaging apps or social networks, WhatsApp allows us to configure a profile with our photography, aliases and status. By default, this will be visible to anyone including the last time we have connected, but we can restrict it so that only our contacts or nobody can see it .

To do this we have to go to Settings> Account> Privacy and choose the settings we want for displaying the avatar, status, and last connection time. In the case of the last connection time, we will be able to see that of the rest according to what we choose: if we choose “nobody” we will not see the last connection time of the rest, and the equivalent if we choose only contacts.

2. Command the ticks

From the beginning WhatsApp signaled the sending and receiving of messages with ticks, to later indicate the status of the reading for the receiver with the famous double tick or double blue check . This, in fact, brought some controversy precisely by hinting that the message had been read when this was not always desired.

Initially, it could not be deactivated until the developers gave in to requests from users who did not comply with the imposition. Thus, if you do not want to be notified that you have read the messages (or know if your contacts have read yours), you will have to go to Settings> Account> Privacy and uncheck the box/switch of “Reading confirmation”. Of course, in groups, this function will continue to be active.

In addition, we can always read the messages from the notification center , so that the app does not open and it does not reflect that we have read them. This was already explained by the colleagues of Xataka Móvil , also remembering that we can use pop-up notifications (on Android) or airplane mode (without forgetting to close WhatsApp as soon as we have finished reading) so that our reading is not recorded.

3. The bots that WhatsApp does not give us (Android)

In this case, it is not something that we find per se in WhatsApp, but rather a function that we see in other messaging platforms such as Facebook Messenger or Telegram and that with an external app we can integrate into it: bots. For this we can resort to qeuBot, an app that allows you to make use of a series of bots in a similar way to what we see on Telegram, that is, by mentioning them.

Among these bots we find the following:

  • General information : we will call @wiki (example: “Hans Zimmer @wiki”).
  • Current information : we will call @news (example: “Tech @news”).
  • Information about the weather : we will call @weather to find out the weather in a city (example: “Valencia @weather).
  • Information about the cinema : here it uses the IMdB database, therefore we will call @imdb (example: “Interstellar @imdb”).
  • Horoscope information : we will call @horoscope (example: “Pisces @horoscope”).
  • Image search : turn to Bing to display images of what we say (example: “Paris @pic”).
  • Search for GIFs : GIFs could not be missing, and in this case we called @gif (example: “cat @gif”).
  • Calculation function : to perform simple operations we will call @calc (example “34 x 4 – 12 @calc).

What we consult will be automatically sent to the conversation as soon as we send the query, and for some like Wikipedia, we can configure the language in which we write. The app has two versions : the free one and the paid one (1.69 euros). The bots not included in the free version of the app are the search for images, GIFs and news.

4. Format the text

A function whose arrival we eagerly awaited those of us who use the format resources to highlight words within a text and do not settle for quotation marks or capital letters, and which the colleagues of Xataka Android explained to us in detail . So, what we can do is put bold, italic, strikethrough or monospace type (fixed-width), or combine them. Simply by adding certain punctuation marks according to this code:

  • Bold: open and close with asterisks (*) the word or phrase that interests us.
  • Italic: open and close with underscores (_)
  • Strikethrough: open and close with pointers (~).
  • Monospace: open and close with three open accents. Example texto.
  • Combination of formats: the order must be taken into account to enclose in the correct order. That is, the first symbol to open is the last to close (in mirror, not repeating the order).
    • Correct order: _ * text * _ (would appear in italics and bold)
    • Incorrect order: _ * text _ *
5. Emoji, emoji everywhere! And big

The fever of the Emoji symbols is far from over and Unicode is expanding the assortment with regional pictograms, gestures or professions among many other categories. On WhatsApp what they implemented a few months ago was the possibility that these vary in size, depending on the number of symbols that we put, as explained in Xataka Android .

Thus, there is no need to do anything beforehand or insert characters as with formatted text. It is somewhat automatic when sending the message , depending on the number of Emoji that we put in a row (all being equal), with four or more symbols being the normal size and only one Emoji being the largest. Of course, when there is a different character between them, the size will be the standard, as well as if we put them after writing text.

6. Reply with GIFs

GIFs are the language of the future, we all know that, and they needed to be added on WhatsApp. But beyond jokes, it is something that has become popular and that other social app such as Twitter and Telegram ended up integrating so that you do not have to leave them to insert them.

On WhatsApp, they did that by resorting to the huge Giphy database, although it is not entirely intuitive. GIFs have their access in the photo library, with which we have to do as if we wanted to share one of our photos, but going to the access that is in the lower right corner. There the Giphy search engine will open in which we can enter the topic (in Spanish or English, as we wish), and once selected we can send it whole or shorten it , being able to add a message as with the photographs or videos.

7. Highlight messages (or bookmark)

Sometimes it is convenient for us not to lose certain messages and save them for later consultation, just as we do with tweets or articles. In the same way, we can bookmark the messages we want by going to the command with its symbol (a star) in the menu that appears when clicking on a message.

To see them we have to go to the settings tab, being the access under the option of the web/desktop client. They come out in chronological order as we have marked them (the oldest first).

8. Search content

We may not have thought or missed marking a certain message as a favorite and a few days have already passed, which can mean a lot of conversation to go back. To avoid this we can directly search for words in all chats , as we do with the system or the browser, and the way of doing it varies according to the operating system.

In iOS it is accessed from the conversations screen, sliding down so that the option appears and we can enter the search terms. In Android we will have to enter the chat options menu, among which we will find “search”, highlighting the word in the conversation and being able to jump from one to another.

9. Management of chats (I): keep them and send them by email

As for saving conversations, there are several ways depending on whether we want to save a message, a few or all the history. The latter is provided by the WhatsApp to log in with your own system backup or backup, both the option of realizing how to restore it .

But if what we want is to keep or transfer a message (or especially a conversation), we can share it in an email in the form of a .txt file in the Android version (in iOS it copies it as selected text to a new email) . For this we will look for the option in the three points and “More” of the contextual menu that appears when selecting a conversation. This remains in a text file ( .txt) as a standard email attachment.

10. Chat management (II): delete them

If what we are looking for is to delete conversations or messages we also have several options depending on what we want exactly. Selecting a message we can eliminate it from the conversation: if it is ours, no one else will see it and if it is foreign, we will not see it.

We can do the actions globally by going to the same menu as to configure the backup: Settings> Chats> Chat history. There we have three options to make conversations disappear :

  • Archive : will clear the chat screen, leaving an access to them in “Archived chats”. The action is completely revocable, just as it has been archived.
  • Empty : chats are deleted, with the possibility of resetting them from the backup.
  • Delete : are permanently deleted.

Five ideas to start a small business in a successful way

If your most desired dream is to own your own business, but you are still looking for the idea that will allow you to get closer to your purpose, then this post is ideal for you. It is a selection of 50 business ideas taken from the 1000 Business Ideas blog , among which you can find all kinds of ideas so you can select the one you like best and adapt it to start your business.

Today there are many people looking to leave the corporate world to do something that fuels their passion. People don’t want to retire at 60 (or more) and looking back, feeling like they wasted their lives.

Fortunately, today it is incredibly easy to start a business from scratch without investing a fortune. Below I have compiled a list of 75 different ideas that you can start for little money and from the comfort of your home. Some do not require more than an internet connection, and others require certain licenses or skills … you decide!

Leaving the life of an employee to be the owner of his own business is the dream of many people. But what to do when there are few resources available? In this article, you will learn some ideas to establish a small business with low investment.

Franchise or own business?

If you are a novice in the business field, the first decision you must make is regarding the business model. It is necessary to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the two main options (invest in a franchise or open your own company) to discover which of these is ideal for your need and profile.

There are a number of quirks that deserve your attention. For example, while the frenzy  has standardized and immutable processes (which have already been successful in another location), the option of opening your own company allows you to manage in the way that you prefer.

As for financial resources , investment in a franchise tends to be easier to measure in the medium and long term, since there is prior planning with a specific schedule. On the other hand, the possibility of expanding their own business and gaining representativeness in the market is attractive for many entrepreneurs, which justifies the option of opening their own company. It all depends on your profile and what you want.

Five ideas to start a small business

First, you need to identify an unmet demand in the sector or in the segment in which you intend to act. It can be a problem for which there is no solution or improvement process, either with superior quality, a more competitive price or differentiated attention.

To be certain that the idea is viable and justified in the region’s business ecosystem, it is worth investing in a market analysis . Thus, you can understand the profile and demands of consumers, the situation of the competition and possible business relationships with suppliers. Then, brainstorm some ideas for establishing a small business and evaluate the options according to your reality:

1. Logistics

Investing in the logistics segment can be a good option in large shopping centers. With a small investment in motorcycles and medium vehicles, it is possible to compose a fleet for quick deliveries, between small distances, in order to streamline the corporate day-to-day.

2. Cleaning

People who work and study outside the home tend to have little time for housework and cleaning at home. In addition to investing in household cleaning, you can create a company that specializes in post-site cleaning, in ecologically correct environments, upholstery or carpets, for example.

3. Events

Consider establishing a small business to plan, organize, and budget for events such as graduations, birthdays, and weddings. The client raises the demands and the company works to meet these conditions in the best way and for the least value.

4. Education

What is the value of a well-trained professional? Depending on demand, it is possible to provide language, disinhibition, public speaking, leadership, etc. courses. There are several possibilities, and almost all require a low initial investment.

5. Beauty

The beauty business offers a wide range of investment alternatives for those who want to establish a small business. From cosmetics to hair removal to skin cleaning and styling, there are many options for both women and men.

Lastly, it is important to remember that, regardless of the idea chosen, it will take a great deal of dedication to make the business profitable. Patience and perseverance are conditions for success.

If you have any questions, suggestions or advice on this topic, comment below. Take the opportunity to share this content with your friends, colleagues, and collaborators, through social networks.

6. Make Chatbots

At they quote me as Murray Newlands, an expert in ChatBot , and says: ‘Ten years ago all companies needed a website and five years ago all companies needed an app, today all companies need to open the door to Artificial Intelligence messaging and chatbots ”. This creates opportunities and jobs. You can learn how to do them for free by learning to program, and then make them to companies.

Chatbots are today and we are at a point where all companies need one. Chatbots have become a great opportunity for companies to interact with their customers, gather information, and improve their marketing and customer service efforts. You can start creating chatbots quickly without programming. I made the free tool, but there are many options. All you need is:

  • Read about bots and their functionality
  • Create an account
  • Learn about the company that needs a chatbot
  • Create your bot
  • Launch it on Facebook Messenger

And you don’t require programming courses.

  • The platform is incredible because:
  • Work with Facebook Messenger and your comments.
  • Can show promotions to customers on demand
  • Recognize variations in keywords
  • Can process Facebook orders
  • Integrates with almost all existing payment platforms
7. Accounting services

Are you good with numbers and want to work from home? To be a freelance accountant all you need is your degree, and be good with numbers. There are many tools to learn how to make invoices and keep things clear with the Treasury.

8. Personal or virtual assistant

Although these jobs don’t sound as glamorous, the truth is that they pay well. If you have already had a similar job in an office, you will see that the digital version gives you much more freedom. Use platforms like to find clients and you can choose:

  • Your clients
  • Your schedules
  • Your rates
9. Marketing services

Marketing does require some experience and knowledge. Having said this, if you don’t have experience, invest in a digital course that is not only inexpensive but will give you the necessary tools to start a marketing agency that you can grow in the future. There are many options in this field that are opened every day, such as influencer marketing.

Companies are always looking for freelancers who can offer them optimized texts for Google and who can convert their visits into potential clients. You could also offer to upload content to their sites and improve their SEO with:

  • Meta descriptions
  • The right titles
  • The correct keyword density
  • Tags and categories
  • Optimized relevant images
10. Social media consultant

Who doesn’t love Facebook, Twitter and Instagram? If you’re good at social media, but don’t have professional training, both Twitter and Google offer comprehensive courses with recognized certifications that require very little investment. Social media is a business with unlimited potential and a customer base that can span the globe. And it doesn’t seem like this trend is going to die anytime soon, if at all, we’ll see the rise of new platforms further expanding the possibilities. And you can use administration tools to make your job easier.


Netflix : Why It is too much famous for the streaming?

Netflix, Inc. is a US-based entertainment company operating globally whose primary service is the distribution of audiovisual content through an online platform or VOD ( Video On Demand ) service by broadcast Live (in English Streaming ). Located in Los Gatos, California, the company was created in 1997 and a year later it began its activity offering a DVD rental service through the postal mail. Netflix is ​​currently involved in the production of audiovisual works: from the creation or acquisition of the product to its worldwide distribution.

In 2000, even with DVD rental as the only service, Netflix introduced a personalized recommendation system, based on the rating of one to five stars that its customers made of the materials they rented through its website. The continuous improvement of this system -which in 2017 would be changed to one of “thumb up” / “thumb down” – as well as the use of other data that the platform obtains from its clients known as data-mining or data mining, It is considered as the main cause of the company’s success. 

In 2007, Netflix started its VOD service in the United States, exclusively to be used through personal computers; from 2008 different options are added to access the catalog by live broadcast: video game consoles, smart televisions, tablets, etc. On February 25, 2007, his billionth DVD entered. In 2009, its physical catalog offers 100,000 titles and its clientele exceeds 10 million subscribers.

In 2011, the company began operations for the first time outside the United States and Canadian territory, offering its catalog by live broadcast in the Latin America and Caribbean region. In 2012 it offers its services in some countries in Europe, and from 2016 it offers its contents to the whole world with the exception of the Crimea region, and the territories of North Korea, China and Syria.

On January 16, 2014, the nomination for the documentary The Square for an Academy Award became the first in history for an original Netflix production. Items in Spanish are the world ‘s most successful series The paper house and Elite, both located in the Top 10 world most-watched series in the world in 2019. In January 2020, the platform has approximately 158 million customers worldwide, the majority outside the United States.

Netflix is currently crowned as the main distributor of movies via streaming without counting the hundreds of servers and pages where film releases can be enjoyed illegally in the world, profits continue to increase in the same way that customers, surely nothing could be better, could it?

A great advantage of Netflix is ​​that it cares about keeping an updated catalog, buying rights to a movie that has just come out of theaters is crazy, it is true, we can not ask for that yet, but we can wait a couple of months to enjoy them through this Format. Although it is true that this practice is against getting rid of certain content every certain time.

In Mexico, there is the possibility of enjoying brand new releases, thanks to Cinépolis and its Cinépolis Klic service for renting movies online, at an affordable cost that reminds me of the service of the disappeared Blockbuster, although it is true that we cannot attribute the same success that Netflix enjoys, similar platforms but with a very unbalanced influx between them.

Netflix emerged in 1997 in California, United States as a postal delivery DVD rental company. Throughout its history, the company has undergone various transformations until, by 2019, it is a media company that participates in audiovisual production from the conception or acquisition of the product to its dissemination, in this case through an online platform. 

The myth created by the company itself indicates that it all started when Reed Hastings rented the movie Apollo 13 , on the Blockbuster video club chain , and when returning it a few days late, he had to pay a fine of $ 40. Resigned, Hastings decided to create a chain of video clubs without fines or commitments. However, in the book Netflixed: the Epic Battle for America’s Eyeballs, the co-founder of the company, Marc Randolph, relates that the idea arose based on the desire to start an e-commerce business that would ultimately choose DVD as its product.

Netflix Original Series

The huge profits generated by subscriptions is evident, now Netflix is ​​in charge of producing its content. They have begun to produce series and also films, there are no limits, of course, the continuity of them depends on many factors, among them the acceptance of the public and the popularity they begin to take among people, which can be measured on social networks .

It is true that Netflix has begun to develop different productions, of all kinds and for all tastes and almost all have managed to be a resounding success on their platform, a great surprise for the company. But they are not the only ones who have chosen to make their own content, Amazon is also focusing on this type of market, although they have not taken off in the same way and little is said about them.

As I was saying, the original productions of the company continue thanks to the public. To all these series and films a meticulous study is carried out in which they analyze all the total reproductions around the world, along with the rating that is given, they can begin to track the tastes that we could call universal, endowing the company of at least a hint about your results.

Although the public’s decision lies in the continuous production of this content, also the instinct and intuition of the directors continues to weigh heavily on these decisions. That is, if there is considerable consumer acceptance of any series, this decision could be undermined by the subjectivity of Netflix executives on content and its future on the platform.

The exclusive content Netflix has become one of the main attractions for people to pay a subscription and consume these productions. Many of us remember well the famous series Breaking Bad , undoubtedly from my point of view one of the best series-produced so far. Well, Netflix took advantage of the resounding success to release a spin-off about the life of lawyer Saul Goodman .


Different ipad problems and issues and how to solve it?

The iPad 12.9-inch  screen, split-screen support, and 10-hour battery life are tempting millions of users to buy Apple’s largest tablet. It is an attractive device, but not perfect. Unfortunately, several people have complained that it doesn’t quite work properly. Here are some tips on common iPad Pro problems, as well as possible solutions. And if you want to get more out of your tablet and your other Apple products, check out these irresistible accessories.

There is always a lot of expectation when we perform a software installation on our iPad. Either because it comes with solutions to errors or because news comes we always want to have installation as fast as possible. But unfortunately, there can always be problems throughout the update process, which have a solution as we tell you in this article.

If the download takes a long time

Sometimes we can find that the download of the corresponding update for iPad is quite slow. Obviously we must check that our connection is going well through a speed test. But it is true that sometimes software updates that weigh a few megabytes and take a long time to download can end up frustrating.

This can basically happen because Apple’s servers are overcrowded. This is quite common when we are downloading moments after it has been activated. In these cases, you simply have to wait for the servers to stop being saturated, and if the WiFi network persists. If it is possible, we can also try to install with our mobile data, if it has a low weight.

If the update cannot be verified

Another of the most common problems that we can find is that when we click on ‘Install’, a message will appear saying ‘impossible to verify the update’ . This message is accompanied by a text that indicates that we are not connected to the Internet and that it is false because we are in a WiFi or with mobile data. In this situation, we must try a different WiFi network or simply perform the installation through a Mac or PC through iTunes. This can also be applied to when the message ‘Unable to check for update’ appears.

If it has been a while since we are trying to update our device and we still get these error messages, we must remove the update. To do so, simply follow these steps:

  1. On iPad go to Settings and go to General> iPad Storage.
  2. In the list of applications that appear, look for the update.
  3. Click on it and delete it.

In this way we can re-download the update and check if this problem no longer exists. If with the removal of the update we do not have results, we will have to go to a Mac or PC to perform the update.

If the update is too long

When we are carrying out the update we can see on the screen the company icon as well as a progress bar that is progressing. In certain occasions, this wait can be very long and the bar does not seem to advance. We must bear in mind that the installation progress can be tremendously slow depending on the weight of the update and the number of files we have on our iPhone. It is true that we can miss some indicator that warns us if the update has not been blocked.

It is recommended in these cases to have the iPad connected to the power and leave it as long as necessary. If we see that it has been blocked we can try to turn it off to force it to start again and if none of this works, enter it in DFU mode.

Problems with rebooting, Wi-Fi, screen lock and more

Problem: Turns off or restarts on its own We have seen quite a few threads on the Apple support forums about the iPad Pro auto shutdown, or a random reboot for no apparent reason. Potential solutions:

  • Press and hold the Sleep / Wake and Home buttons for 10 seconds, or until you see the Apple logo. This can at least temporarily fix the problem.
  • If you notice that crashes occur when you are using a specific application, or playing a certain game, try uninstalling it and try to see if the problem is solved.
  • Back up your data, then try a factory reset. Restore your backup when you’re done, and see if the problem persists. If it does, then consider a factory reset followed by setting up the iPad Pro as a new device, rather than restoring it with your backup. It is possible that one of the applications that you have installed (or something in its configuration) is causing the crashes.
  • If the problem persists after restoring the factory settings and setting the device as new, you should contact Apple.

Problem: Echo in Skype and video calls Many people have said that when they use iPad Pro to make video calls, they hear an echo. It does not happen with FaceTime, but it does with a series of third-party applications such as Skype and Facebook Messenger. Solution:

  • If you have a headset with a microphone, plug them in and the echo will disappear.

Potential solution:

  • This appears to be a software problem. The fact that FaceTime doesn’t have it suggests that developers of other video calling apps might update their software to fix it. It may be worth uninstalling the troublesome app, turning off your iPad Pro, turning it back on, and then reinstalling the app.
  • Check Settings> General> Software Update to make sure your iPad Pro has the latest Apple software.
  • If the problem persists, contact the developer of the app you’re having trouble with and report it. You should also report it to Apple.

Problem: Can’t connect to a Wi-Fi network Some people have trouble getting the iPad Pro to connect to a Wi-Fi network, while others have a poor connection. This is a very common problem for all types of devices and is generally fairly easy to fix. Here’s what to try: Potential solutions:

  • Turn your router and iPad Pro on and off. Press and hold the Sleep / Wake and Home buttons together for about 10 seconds, until you see the Apple logo. It is also worth restarting the router if you can.
  • Try to reset all your network settings by going to Settings> General> Reset> Reset Network Settings. You will have to enter your passwords again.
  • If your router has MAC filtering enabled, then you may need to turn it off. Adding your iPad’s MAC address is possible, but due to Apple’s MAC scrambling, there’s a good chance it will change and refuse to connect the next time you try. The simplest solution is to completely disable MAC filtering.
  • Your DNS settings may be the problem. You can change it in Settings> Wi-Fi by pressing the “i” icon next to your network and scrolling down to DNS. Tap the numbers and change them to “” or “”, if you want to use Google’s servers, or you could use OpenDNS, which is “” or “”.
  • If you are using a VPN service, make sure you have the latest updates.
  • Make sure that the firmware of your router is completely updated. You may need to check with your provider or the manufacturer of the router.
  • If you think you are experiencing interference, consider changing the position of the router. One or more walls could be causing interference between your iPad and the router.

Intermittent Fasting and How does it affect on the body?

If you are already on a low-calorie diet but are stuck and are not losing weight, intermittent fasting may be your solution. Recent scientific studies seem to find more and more reasons to support intermittent fasting as a method of losing weight. Perhaps this is why the intermittent fasting diet is one of the most talked-about diets today.

There are many diets so it is not always easy to know all of them in detail or to know well what their benefits and risks are. One of the most commented trends lately is intermittent fasting, also known as “interval fasting”. This type of diet is very popular among athletes and for many people who want to lose weight it is the definitive method. But what is intermittent fasting really? How does it work? Is it dangerous to fast like this?

Intermittent fasting is, in a nutshell, cycling between periods when you eat and periods when you fast. Currently it is a very popular method to lose weight and improve health.

But fasting is nothing new. In fact, intermittent fasting is an ancient health secret. It is ancient because it has been realized throughout the history of humanity.  And it is secret because until recently this custom has been practically forgotten, especially when it comes to health.

However, many people are rediscovering this nutritional intervention. Since 2010 the number of online searches for “intermittent fasting” has increased by about 10,000 percent, and most of this increase has occurred in recent years.If done correctly, fasting has the potential to deliver significant health benefits: weight loss, type 2 diabetes correction, and much more.

Plus, it can save you time and money. The goal of this beginner’s guide is to help you learn everything you need to know about intermittent fasting, so you can start putting it into practice.

What is intermittent fasting?

Is fasting the same as starvation, or starvation? No, fasting differs from starvation in one crucial aspect: control. Starvation is the involuntary lack of food for a long period of time and can lead to serious suffering or even death.

It is neither intended nor controlled. Fasting, on the other hand, is voluntarily postponing food intake for reasons whether religious, health, or otherwise. It is carried out by people who are not underweight and therefore have enough stored fat to live on it. Intermittent fasting, if done in the right way, should not cause suffering, and definitely does not cause death.

You have easy access to food, but you decide not to eat. The fast can be of any duration, from a few hours to days or – with medical supervision – up to a week or more. It is possible to start a fast at any time, and you can also leave it whenever you want. You can start or end a fast for any reason or no reason.

The fasting period does not have a standard duration, as it is simply not eating. Anytime you don’t eat, you’re fasting. For example, you can fast between dinner and breakfast the next day, an interval of about 12-14 hours. In this sense, fasting can be considered part of daily life. It is perhaps the oldest and most effective dietary intervention imaginable.

Let’s analyze the term “breakfast”. It is made up of the Latin prefix des-, which means inverse action or “exit from”, plus the verb “fast”, which means to abstain from eating. Every day, the first time we eat something, we break the fast, we fast. Rather than hinting at a kind of cruel and unusual punishment, the language implicitly confirms that fasting should be done on a daily basis, even for a short time.

Intermittent fasting, then, is nothing strange or peculiar, but part of ordinary daily life. It is perhaps the oldest and most effective dietary intervention imaginable. But for some reason we have forgotten its formidable effectiveness and ignored its therapeutic possibilities.


Intermittent fasting does much more than just restrict calorie intake . It also changes the body’s hormones so they can make better use of your fat stores. The following changes occur:

  • Intermittent fasting improves insulin sensitivity, especially in combination with exercise. This is very important for people who have weight problems because low insulin levels are associated with better fat burning.
  • The opposite is insulin resistance. Some studies have shown that weight gain can interfere with insulin’s ability to lower blood sugar levels, resulting in more insulin. This promotes fat storage.
  • Growth hormone secretion increases, speeding up protein synthesis and making fat available as an energy source. This means, in a nutshell, that you burn fat and build muscle faster. That is why growth hormone is taken in large amounts in bodybuilding as a doping agent.

In addition, according to studies, fasting activates autophagy, which removes damaged cells, contributes to repair and aids the body’s regeneration process.


If you skip meals and create a calorie deficit, you will lose weight. Unless you make up for fasting with meals that are full of fat and sugar. It can happen: This type of eating pattern does not necessarily tell you what foods you can or cannot eat. Some studies have found that intermittent fasting (if done right) can be effective in both preventing type 2 diabetes and reducing calories. In addition, the body learns to process the foods consumed during the eating period better and more efficiently.

Other studies have found that a combination of the 16/8 method and strength training (both with your own weight and with weights) can reduce more fat than strength training alone.  However, no evidence of muscle gain was observed in the study subjects.

There are certain points you should keep in mind if you want to combine fasting (such as intermittent fasting) with physical exercise :

  1. If you are trying to lose weight, for example, it is very important that the caloric deficit is moderate and that you only try to lose 0.5-1% of weight per week.
  2. Include strength sessions in your training routine and increase your protein intake (it must represent 25% or more of your total energy intake) to maintain muscle mass.  
  3. Also, you should train just before the biggest meal you eat a day. If, on the contrary, your intention is to combine high-intensity training with fasting periods, we recommend that you consult beforehand with a doctor or specialist in nutrition and sports issues.

Artist Guide : Essential qualities to be a great artist

I have decided to write this post for those who are wondering how to be an artist and write down some keys that from experience in the industry can serve you. First, I must make it clear that to be an artist, it is the public that should put you on the road or not, but if you are in phase A where a certain concern to show your art moves inside, you must clear up the questions that concern you.

To be an artist you must develop an art and if you rush me by natural instinct although I have met some artists with little talent but with a lot of persistence that through effort and with work overalls they have managed to enter interesting amounts of money, but this is bread for today and…. The artist must be born with that spell that makes him different and then if you develop it, you will choose to conquer the public. There are many people who have been born by and for art and yet have not invested time in deepening it, losing all those doses of talent along the way.

Once you are clear about your artistic plot and develop it, you must persuade your closest circle beings . So far everything is more or less simple because I assure you that 99% of your people, they will praise your art, whether it is good, regular or bad, they are never objective and they are myopic.

The next phase should be to get out of your comfort zone and persuade external niches that naturally find you on the road and become members of your tribe. If you see that little by little you are increasing your own community you can start to believe in living from music.

Never consider yourself an artist if the public has not done so , is the only judge of this journey and only he will or will not put you on the path of success.

If your product begins to have color, you must continue developing it and begin to surround yourself with people who bring fresh air to your career. I refer to the figure of the manager , today essential more than ever in the life of any artist. A prepared manager can lead you to success without having a record company. There are many real examples that prove it.

If you identify with some of these keys, you may be a potential artist:

  • I am a restless being 24 hours a day
  • I always look for the different
  • Have I ever woken up at dawn with an idea related to my art
  • Shyness is a child’s thing
  • At parties with friends, I have “started” when nobody has asked me to
  • I’m not obsessed with fame or money
  • There is nothing more beautiful than exciting someone with my art
  • I carry humility as a flag

If after this you keep wondering how to be an artist, I will tell you that there is no formula for it, impossible.

Art is for anyone, but not for everyone. I know it viscerally, as a possible artist who burned himself. I wrote about it last year and since then I have been harassed: at every conference I give, at every gallery, I stick my head in, someone is asking me for advice. What they really ask is “How can I be an artist?”

When Banksy assembled a frame last month to destroy a painting just when it was auctioned, I could almost hear the whispers, “Is that art?” This fall, New York’s biggest museum event is Whitney’s retrospective on Andy Warhol – the self-made paradigmatic artist, create-anything-and-be-a-famous-artist. Today, we are all children of Andy, especially in the Instagram era, who has trained us to think visually and see our daily lives as fodder for aesthetic production.

How do you go from where you are to really making art, great art? There is no special way; each one has his own way. However, over the years, I have found myself giving the same advice. Most of them were simply drawn from looking at the art, and then looking a bit more. Others who listen to artists talk about their work and struggles. (They are all narcissists). I even stole a couple from my wife.

There are 33 rules – and they really are all you need to know to make a living in art. Or 34, if it counts “Always be kind, generous and open with others and take care of your teeth.” And No. 35: “Fake it until you succeed.”

Essential qualities to be a great artist:

  • Talent: It is true that a lucky few are simply born with great artistic talent, however if this is not your case, you will be able to study and prepare yourself to become fluent in the language of art that allows you to develop your talent.
  • Passion: the only way to do a great job is to love what you do, it will motivate you to always try to be better and look for ways to improve yourself.
  • Technique: A good artist is one who masters technique, who knows how to define the line perfectly and is a master of color; The painting of the past must be studied a lot, to the great masters of all times, we can learn a lot from them and expand our expressive capacity as an artist.
  • Creativity: It is a gift that we all have but only few manage to put it into practice; Creativity is a powerful tool to connect with others.
  • Study other artists:  Reduce the artwork of successful or inspiring artists to their most elemental components to determine what makes an image successful or problematic. eye! , It is not to imitate them or because we distrust them, but to start the path itself.
  • Personal style:  analyze your own passions, put your own style on the works you do, little by little you will become a specialist with your own brand.
  • Sensitivity:  an artist has to have to feel the color and the shape; He has the ability to understand these languages ​​and adapt them to his expressive needs, a sensitivity that develops over the years. In art words are superfluous, good art feels, likes, reaches the viewer.
  • Social Responsibility:  the artist comes to influence others, the artistic movements have been able to change the mentality of humanity and transform the world.
  • Vocation: “many are called, but few are chosen”; It is an imperative that is carried in the soul, that inclination and interest to dedicate oneself to art; It should not be confused with professional aspirations, there are three elements to find the vocation: Talent, Passion and Demand or needs of the world.

Stimulus generalization gradients as measures of stimulus check

According to Pear (1999) As we acquire new behaviors we learn to develop them at the right time and in the right place, the behavior is strongly affected by its consequences, that is, the behavior that is reinforced increases, and the one that does not increase decreases.

We use the term stimulus check to refer to the control of a stimulus over behavior as a result of the behavior being reinforced in the presence of that stimulus. While certain stimuli are consistent predictors that a certain behavior will be reinforced, others are consistent predictors that a particular behavior will not be.

It is probable that behavior takes place in the presence of stimuli that were present when on previous occasions that behavior was reinforced; The procedure by which we learn to emit appropriate behaviors in the presence of certain stimuli is called: stimulus discrimination training. There are names for the 2 types of stimuli associated with reinforcement and non-reinforcement of a given response:

E °: (e-de) It is a stimulus that has been associated with the availability of reinforcement for a particular response, that is, it is an indicator that a response will be rewarded. However, if an event is a stimulus that has been put in relation to extinction tests of a certain response, it is called E * (e-delta ): it is an indicator that a certain response will not be rewarded. E ° is associated with reinforcement_; and E * is associated with non-reinforcement or extinction.

The adequacy of an instrumental response to the stimulating context in which it is performed is so important that the lack of proper stimulus check is often considered abnormal, undressing in private is acceptable in public for reason of arrest.

Control of behavior by stimulation is an important aspect of how organisms adapt to the environment. To accommodate effectively and avoid danger, animals have to behave consistently with changing circumstances. How can one affirm that an instrumental response is under the control of certain stimuli?

Differential response and stimulus discrimination

Control by stimulation of instrumental behavior is demonstrated by variations in response (differential response) related to variations in stimuli. If an organism responds one way in the presence of one stimulus, and differently in the presence of another, it can be said that its behavior is under the control of those stimuli. These differential responses are evident in the behavior of the two pigeons from the Reynolds experiment.

The differential response to two stimuli also indicates that the pigeons were treating each stimulus differently. This is called stimulus discrimination: An organism is said to show stimulus discrimination if it responds differently to two or more stimuli. Stimulus discrimination and stimulus check are two ways of looking at the same phenomenon: one does not exist without the other. If an organism does not discriminate between two stimuli, its behavior is not under the control of those keys.

Another interesting aspect of Reynolds’ experiment is that the behavior of each bird was controlled by a different stimulus.

In the absence of special procedures, researchers cannot always predict which of several stimuli from which an organism experiences will acquire control over its instrumental behavior.

Stimulus generalization

Identifying and differentiating various stimuli is not so simple. Stimuli can be defined in many different ways. Sometimes very different objects or events are considered examples of the same stimulus because they share the same function. In other cases, stimuli are identified and distinguished based on precise physical features, such as wavelength.

Experimental analyzes of the problem have largely depended on the phenomenon of stimulus generalization, which is the opposite of differential response, or stimulus discrimination. An organism is said to show stimulus generalization if it responds similarly to two or more stimuli. This phenomenon was first observed by Pavlov.

In a classic experiment, Guttman and Kalish pigeons program IV pecked with yellowish light with a wavelength of 580 nanometers, then it was observed that pigeons also responded to 570 and 590. These results showed a response gradient depending on the similarity between each test stimulus. and the original training stimulus. This result is an example of what is called the stimulus generalization gradient.

Stimulus generalization gradients as measures of stimulus check

They are often used to measure stimulus checks because they provide information about the degree of sensitivity of an organism’s behavior to variation in a particular aspect of the environment.

Guttman and Kalish (1956) and the hypothetical experiment with color blind pigeons indicates that the sharpness of the stimulus generalization gradient provides an accurate measure of the degree of stimulus check. A flat generalization gradient is obtained if the organism responds similarly to all stimuli in the test. This lack of differential response demonstrates that the stimulus trait that is varied in the generalization test does not check instrumental behavior. On the contrary, a sharp generalization gradient is obtained if the organism responds more to some of the test stimuli than to others. This differential response evidences the fact that instrumental behavior is under the check of the stimulus trait that varies between test stimuli.

If there is a large amount of generalization, there will be little differential response. If the response is highly differential before the stimuli, a minimum generalization will be obtained.

The factors that determine the effectiveness of training in stimulus discrimination are: the choice of clear signals for when it is important to develop control of the stimulus of a certain behavior, it is desirable to identify the E ° drivers are very clear.

2- Minimize the possibilities of error: It will give rise to a more effective stimulus control of the stimulus more quickly and with considerably less frustration for the student.

3-Maximize the number of tests: The effective control of the stimulus is developed after a person has been reinforced to emit the desired behavior in the presence of E ° in several tests.

4-Make use of the rules: describe contingencies: The development of stimulus control involves the trial and error method, several tests of positive reinforcement of behavior in the presence of an E ° and several tests of that behavior not being reinforced in presence of an E.

Guidelines for effective stimulus discrimination training

Choosing clear signals, selecting an appropriate reinforcement, developing discrimination, realizing that stimulus control over student behavior will not develop if he does not attend to the indexes.